Dr. Florian Krammer discussed the Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. Humans induce robust and long-lasting antibody responses to SARS- CoV-2, even after mild infection. For individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, one shot of the mRNA vaccine may be enough. The neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 is complex and not just focused on the RBD. the role of human non-neutralizing antibodies is unclear, but preliminary data from the mouse model suggests they could be beneficial.