Study unveils the connection between oxidative stress and inflammation in primary Sjögren’s syndrome

A recent study has uncovered a significant relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS). This research offers a novel approach to patient monitoring by identifying key biomarkers that could improve the follow-up and prognosis of pSS. 

The study involved 53 patients diagnosed with pSS and aimed to assess their oxidative stress status and inflammatory response in relation to disease activity. The findings revealed a significant reduction in antioxidant enzyme activity among pSS patients, indicating a compromised antioxidant defense system. In contrast, levels of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and pro-inflammatory cytokines were markedly elevated, particularly in patients with higher disease activity. This suggests that oxidative stress and inflammation are closely linked in pSS. 

 Interestingly, the study found strong correlations between plasma levels of NO and MDA, as well as between MDA, NO, and the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. These biomarkers showed potential as indicators of disease activity, highlighting their value in monitoring pSS. However, no significant association was found between NO, MDA, and IL-33 levels. 

 Another study by Wakamatsu et al. found significant correlations between oxidative stress markers and inflammation in pSS patients. The study observed elevated levels of lipid peroxidation markers, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and hexanoyl-lysine, in the tear film and conjunctiva of pSS patients. These findings support the notion that oxidative stress is significantly associated with inflammation in pSS, reinforcing the potential of oxidative stress markers in disease monitoring and prognosis​. 

The study highlights a disrupted oxidant-antioxidant balance in patients with pSS, with MDA, NO, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α emerging as valuable biomarkers for monitoring disease activity. The close relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation in pSS suggests potential therapeutic targets and underscores the importance of these biomarkers in patient follow-up and prognosis. 

 These findings pave the way for more precise monitoring and tailored therapeutic strategies, enhancing the management of primary Sjögren’s syndrome and improving patient outcomes. The study underscores the potential of integrating oxidative stress markers into routine clinical practice to better understand and control this debilitating disease. 

Reference 

  1. Benchabane S, Sour S, Zidi S, Hadjimi Z, Nabila L, Acheli D, Bouzenad A, Belguendouz H, Touil-Boukoffa C. Exploring the relationship between oxidative stress status and inflammatory markers during primary Sjögren’s syndrome: A new approach for patient monitoring. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2024 Jan-Dec;38:3946320241263034. 
  1. Wakamatsu TH, Dogru M, Matsumoto Y, Kojima T, Kaido M, Ibrahim OM, Sato EA, Igarashi A, Ichihashi Y, Satake Y, Shimazaki J, Tsubota K. Evaluation of lipid oxidative stress status in Sjögren syndrome patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Jan 7;54(1):201-10. 

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